I have travelled overseas for over 46 Years. Golf is the most - played sport in Australia. Etihad and Emirates and Qatar [all 'relatively recent' Carriers] allow golf clubs etc. to travel with you at no impost to the luggage allowance. 'Even Emirates advertise: 'Next time, bring along your friends'. A picture of a set of golf clubs is the backdrop. Therefore, travelling to Europe via Abu Dhabi, Dubai or Doha, then non - stop to a European or NYC / Chicago desination is easy, and trouble - free. All the other carriers ex Australia charge or deduct from one's baggage allowance. [Emirates also offer a service: Melbourne - Dubai via SE Asia, but one is still faced with the connecting carrier charging]. Witness: Singapore Airlines even deduct in FIRST Class. We do not pack 'heavy'; but clubs are clubs. Say, with a lightweight bag - itself 2.2kg, clubs and shoes total 17kg, stripped of head covers and other 'domestic - use' items usually found in one's bag. SQ fly into Melbourne 3 times daily, but two of these services are Business & Economy only, not the third, A380 or 747. Baggage Excess is 1% / kilo of the 'normal' FIRST Class fare, each way. So, $40.00 / kg. We use Business for 'short haul' e.g. MEL / SIN unless going further. All these carriers fly identical - brand / model aircraft; a Boeing is a Boeing. At the times that suit me, the services are 2 - Class; so: 30kg minus 17kg minus 7kg hand - luggage allowance leaves me SIX kilograms [say 13 pounds] for 'clothes'. Economy allowance is 20 kg, so an 'Economy it is not. A tennis raquet is lighter, but non - conforming!