The 4 big Chinese airlines have said that they will not pay the EU carbon tax. The 4 airlines are Air China, China Eastern Airlines, China Southern Airlines and Hainan Airlines. "China's four leading airlines have thrown down the gauntlet to the European Union by saying they will refuse to pay carbon charges levied under Europe's emissions trading scheme. The defiant message — which could lead to a ban from European airports — marks an escalation of resistance to the scheme, which came into effect this week and is also fiercely opposed by the United States. Despite the growing threat of a trade war, Europe sees the cap-and-trade system for aviation emissions as a crucial tool for reducing greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change."